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Paul-Henri Rebut, then the director of the U.
The Hidden Dangers of Early Enlightenment
Charles C. Baker, the U. Sixteen years later, on Oct. House of Representatives convened another hearing on fusion energy research. Stewart C. But what was the real-world power consumption? What was the real progress in reactor power over the years? Dean suggested that I contact JET directly. Nick Holloway, the media manager for the Communications Group of the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, which operates the JET fusion reactor, responded promptly and clearly to my inquiry.
The electrical input power consumed by the JET reactor, Holloway told me, was at least million Watts megawatts, or MW of electricity. Therefore, with a fusion heat output of 16 MW, JET came only within 2 percent rather than 65 percent of producing as much power as it consumed. The 2 percent number is based on a less-conservative of two calculation methods, comparing the fusion heat output rate to the electrical input rate.
A more conservative calculation method normalizes the fusion heat power output to electrical power, using a 40 percent conversion efficiency, and gives a reactor power efficiency of less than 1 percent. An Internet search for the electrical power consumed by JET returned no hits. A reactor that can produce power from fusion at a rate greater than the electricity it consumes has never existed. In December , I sent e-mails to each of the 20 members of the U. Six of them responded. It was true. Fusion researchers simply do not think about the electrical power that goes into the reactor.
Instead, they think only about the heating power that is injected into the plasma. However, all stated values on the site are values of power. If the 50 MW and MW power numbers accurately represented what the reactor will do, ITER would not only produce net power but it would produce 10 times more power from fusion than it would require to operate. There are two misleading parts of the 50 MW input power claim.
The first part is that the publicized 50 MW input is not electrical power but instead, it is the power of the heat injected into the plasma. Two fusion research professors who did not want to be quoted explained to me that the 50 MW of power, which enters the reactor chamber as radio frequency waves and energetic neutral beams, require the expenditure of at least MW of electricity.
The second misleading part is that the electrical input power for the entire reactor goes toward many other power-consuming systems than just the plasma heating systems. When the power gain is calculated using the full required electrical power, and using a less-conservative calculation method heat output versus electrical input , ITER will produce thermal power at a rate of 1.
See graph below. Using a more-conservative calculation method heat output normalized to electricity , ITER will have a negative gain of 0. See graph above. Nearly all recent news reports about the ITER reactor say that it will produce power at a rate 10 times greater than it consumes. Making sense of this massive misunderstanding requires a brief review of some of the history, some scientific terminology, and analysis of the public communication about ITER.
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Fusion Power Here is an example of what experts have told non-experts about the results of fusion progress. But my focus today is the future, the remainder of the journey to fusion power. Instead, it commingles power consumption rates for non-reactor site requirements with reactor power requirements. He gave a lengthy response but failed to answer the only question I had asked. I asked Coblentz the question three times, and three times Coblentz failed to provide the answer. On the other hand, I asked for the same information from three independent fusion experts.
I asked each of them only once. Each of them, within a few days, responded only once, with a clear and direct answer. All responses were consistent with one another. Coblentz had the entire ITER staff at his disposal and yet he was unable to provide me with this basic fact. Several U. Twice, I asked Don Rej, the chair of the U. At the time, Rej shared the leadership of that committee with Synakowski. Rej deflected my question both times and, without explanation, said that I should ask Coblentz.
I asked Mark Uhran, the U. ITER project director. I also asked Ernest Moniz, the former U. Secretary of Energy. Not one of them responded. However, three other sources see below were able to quickly, clearly, and succinctly give me the answer to this question. I also had located a U. Department of Energy document that explained that the ITER reactor will use two sets of power supplies.
Key Source But the ITER reactor will consume different amounts of electrical power during different phases of operation. Jassby explained that ITER will have three primary sets of power-consuming systems. The first will be the steady-state power, drawing about MW of electricity. This occurs always, during the startup phase, the fusion phase, and even when the reactor is not operating. The power is necessary for a variety of essential reactor systems such as liquid-helium refrigerators, water pumps, vacuum pumps, temperature controls for the reactor buildings and tritium processing systems.
It will be used primarily for the various magnetic and electrical systems to start up the discharge and reach operating conditions. This MW of electricity will not be used during the fusion phase. The total power consumption before the fusion phase will therefore be about MW of electricity.
The total power consumption during the fusion phase therefore will be about MW of electricity. Coblentz has argued with me that they are not obligated to disclose the required electrical input power for the reactor because the objective of the reactor is not intended to produce net power or net energy. Campbell did not respond. The magnet system will require about 80 MW of electrical power and the heating systems about MW.
Happiness/Happiness and Enlightenment
It is a learning tool for your SOUL — the colours and vibration emitted from this painting brings a daily reminder to your soul from deeper realms. Bringing understanding and a more open Soul to your existing lifetime on this earth.
The love emitted from these Soul Artworks is how they heal using colour and vibration as their medium. You must be logged in to post a review. Larger formats available on request. Category: Print. It has a beautiful traditional watercolour textured surface. Over years for colour and over years for black and white prints before visible fading occurs on most substrates. The relationship we have with ourselves is the ultimate tell-tale sign of what kind of relationships we will have with others.
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Go Ad Free. Nikki Sapp. Thus started her spiritual journey. As time transpired, it became apparent to her that her talent for writing and communication would be how she could give back to humanity and help others who were also experiencing a spiritual awakening. Guided by love and service, she allows her body to be the vehicle by which the universe speaks to others through her writing. Read more. How to Stop Micro-managing and Enable Healing? Spirit says: find peace and everything will fall into place. Knowledge and ego go together perfectly well, but love and ego cannot go together, not at This may Interest you.