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He and Webster urged Biddle to immediately apply for recharter rather than wait to reach a compromise with the administration. On January 6, , Biddle submitted to Congress a renewal of the Bank's charter without any of the proposed reforms. Biddle's recharter bill passed the Senate on June 11 and the House on July 3, Many moderate Democrats, including McLane, were appalled by the perceived arrogance of the bill and supported his decision. Van Buren, is trying to kill me. But I will kill it. It attacked the Bank as an agent of inequality that supported only the wealthy.


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At Biddle's direction, the Bank poured thousands of dollars into a campaign to defeat Jackson, seemingly confirming Jackson's view that it interfered in the political process. Clay proved to be no match for Jackson's ability to resonate with the people and the Democratic Party's strong political networks. Democratic newspapers, parades, barbecues, and rallies increased Jackson's popularity.

He won the election by a landslide, receiving 54 percent of the popular vote and electoral votes. Clay received 37 percent of the popular vote and 49 electoral votes.

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Wirt received only eight percent of the popular vote and seven electoral votes while the Anti-Masonic Party eventually declined. In , Jackson attempted to begin removing federal deposits from the bank, whose money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that materialized across America, thus drastically increasing credit and speculation.

He replaced McLane with William J. Signalling his intent to continue battling the Bank, he replaced Duane with Taney. The moves were intended to force Jackson into a compromise. At first, Biddle's strategy was successful, putting enormous pressure on Jackson.

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When people came to him complaining, he referred them to Biddle, saying that he was the man who had "all the money. Biddle's strategy backfired, increasing anti-Bank sentiment. In , those who disagreed with Jackson's expansion of executive power united and formed the Whig Party , calling Jackson "King Andrew I," and named their party after the English Whigs who opposed seventeenth century British monarchy. The censure was a political maneuver spearheaded by Clay, which served only to perpetuate the animosity between him and Jackson.

Polk , declared on April 4 that the Bank "ought not to be rechartered" and that the depositions "ought not to be restored. Jackson called the passage of these resolutions a "glorious triumph. Polk ran for Speaker of the House to replace Andrew Stevenson. The national economy following the withdrawal of the remaining funds from the Bank was booming and the federal government through duty revenues and sale of public lands was able to pay all bills.

On January 1, , Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U. In , in response to increased land speculation, Jackson issued the Specie Circular , an executive order that required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" gold or silver coins.


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  • The result was high demand for specie, which many banks could not meet in exchange for their notes, contributing to the Panic of His destruction of the Second Bank of the United States had removed restrictions upon the inflationary practices of some state banks; wild speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West. To end this speculation, Jackson in had issued a Specie Circular The first recorded physical attack on a U. He had ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the navy for embezzlement. During a stopover near Alexandria , Randolph appeared and struck the president.

    He fled the scene chased by several members of Jackson's party, including the writer Washington Irving. Jackson declined to press charges. On January 30, , what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting president of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol. Davis , Richard Lawrence , an unemployed house painter from England, aimed a pistol at Jackson, which misfired.

    Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol, which also misfired. Historians believe the humid weather contributed to the double misfiring.

    Lawrence offered a variety of explanations for the attempted shooting. He blamed Jackson for the loss of his job. He claimed that with the president dead, "money would be more plenty," a reference to Jackson's struggle with the Bank of the United States and that he "could not rise until the President fell. Afterwards, the pistols were tested and retested.

    Each time they performed perfectly. Many believed that Jackson had been protected by the same Providence that also protected their young nation.

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    The incident became a part of Jacksonian mythos. Jackson initially suspected that a number of his political enemies might have orchestrated the attempt on his life. His suspicions were never proven. During the summer of , Northern abolitionists began sending anti-slavery tracts through the postal system into the South. Jackson wanted sectional peace, and desired to placate Southerners ahead of the election.

    He supported the solution of Postmaster General Amos Kendall, which gave Southern postmasters discretionary powers to either send or detain the anti-slavery tracts. Jackson initially opposed any federal exploratory scientific expeditions during his first term in office. Harriman on the Red River of the North. Jackson's predecessor, President Adams, attempted to launch a scientific oceanic exploration in , but Congress was unwilling to fund the effort.

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    When Jackson assumed office in he pocketed Adams' expedition plans. Eventually, wanting to establish his presidential legacy, similar to Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition , Jackson sponsored scientific exploration during his second term. Jackson put Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson in charge, to assemble suitable ships, officers, and scientific staff for the expedition; with a planned launch before Jackson's term of office expired. Dickerson proved unfit for the task, preparations stalled and the expedition was not launched until , during the presidency of Van Buren.

    In spite of economic success following Jackson's vetoes and war against the Bank, reckless speculation in land and railroads eventually caused the Panic of Two other Jacksonian acts in contributed to the Panic of the Specie Circular, which mandated western lands only be purchased by money backed by gold and silver, and the Deposit and Distribution Act, which transferred federal monies from eastern to western state banks and in turn led to a speculation frenzy by banks. Jackson's Specie Circular, albeit designed to reduce speculation and stabilize the economy, left many investors unable to afford to pay loans in gold and silver.

    The same year there was a downturn in Great Britain's economy that stopped investment in the United States. As a result, the U. Jackson appointed six justices to the Supreme Court. His first appointee, John McLean , had been nominated in Barry's place after Barry had agreed to become postmaster general. His next two appointees— Henry Baldwin and James Moore Wayne —disagreed with Jackson on some points but were poorly regarded even by Jackson's enemies. Both were confirmed by the new Senate. Sandford largely overshadows his career. Two new states were admitted into the Union during Jackson's presidency: Arkansas June 15, [] and Michigan January 26, This was in keeping with the tradition that new states would support the party which had done the most to admit them.

    In , after serving two terms as president, Jackson was replaced by his chosen successor Martin Van Buren and retired to the Hermitage. He immediately began putting it in order as it had been poorly managed in his absence by his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr. Although he suffered ill health, Jackson remained highly influential in both national and state politics.

    Jackson continued to denounce the "perfidy and treachery" of banks and urged his successor, Van Buren, to repudiate the Specie Circular as president. As a solution to the panic, he supported an Independent Treasury system, which was designed to hold the money balances of the government in the form of gold or silver and would be restricted from printing paper money so as to prevent further inflation.

    During the delay, no effective remedy had been implemented for the depression.

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    Van Buren grew deeply unpopular. The Whigs' campaign style in many ways mimicked that of the Democrats when Jackson ran.

    They depicted Van Buren as an aristocrat who did not care for the concerns of ordinary Americans, while glorifying Harrison's military record and portraying him as a man of the people. Jackson campaigned heavily for Van Buren in Tennessee. No nominee was chosen, and the party chose to leave the decision up to individual state electors. Harrison won the election, and the Whigs captured majorities in both houses of Congress. Jackson was encouraged because Tyler had a strong independent streak and was not bound by party lines. Jackson strongly favored the annexation of Texas , a feat he had been unable to accomplish during his own presidency.

    While Jackson still feared that annexation would stir up anti-slavery sentiment, his belief that the British would use Texas as a base to threaten the United States overrode his other concerns. Walker of Mississippi, acting on behalf of the Tyler administration, which also supported annexation, Jackson wrote several letters to Texas president Sam Houston , urging him to wait for the Senate to approve annexation and lecturing him on how much being a part of the United States would benefit Texas. A treaty of annexation was signed by Tyler on April 12, , and submitted to the Senate. When a letter from Secretary of State Calhoun to British Ambassador Richard Pakenham linking annexation to slavery was made public, anti-annexation sentiment exploded in the North and the bill failed to be ratified.

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    Van Buren decided to write the "Hamlet letter," opposing annexation.