Your Government in Action: August 2010 (Miniscule Guides)
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About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Pagination Next: 2. Trust in government: Trust in government and partisanship Trust in recent times: A closer look Low trust in government across demographic spectrum Trust in government by generation Trust in government and satisfaction with the nation Erosion of trust and diminished belief in government fairness 2.
General opinions about the federal government 3. Views of government's performance and role in specific areas 4. Ratings of federal agencies, Congress and the Supreme Court 5. Political engagement and views of government 6. Perceptions of elected officials and the role of money in politics 7. Views of the political parties and how they manage government 8. Perceptions of the public's voice in government and politics 9.
Views of the nation, how it's changing and confidence in the future Government and taxes How government compares with other national institutions Methodology Appendix A: Why partisans include 'leaners'. Related Publications Nov 23, Survey Reports Sep 19, Publications Jul 22, And then they use our tools to publicly engage their elected officials. Come the next primary and the next election, LawMaker sends users their whole ballot, noting how elected officials and candidates responded to the issues each user engaged with, or whether they responded at all.
Voters now get to make a more educated choice about who they want on their ballot and in their government, based on tangible information about a candidates positions on issues and responsiveness to their constituents. As Americans start to see proof that their ideas and actions can actually impact their government through civic collaboration, we know people will become more motivated to learn about and engage with these issues as a part of their day-to-day lives.
SB: Is this something that you have noticed young people especially have rallied around using, or does it vary by demographic?
Yes, or biggest demographic is among young millennials and Gen Zers, between the ages of When talking to our users, we realize their motivations to participate in the type of civic action LawMaker empowers has a lot to do with where they lie on the cynicism and frustration spectrums. Our younger users are not very cynical — they still believe the system can and should be changed, and that they can play a role. Their belief in the potential for change brings them to LawMaker.
For our older users, it seems to work in reverse. They are extremely cynical about the ability to change the system but they are also extremely frustrated. Jamie Tijerina, a young research scientist, crafted an idea that would help people like her engage in civic issues. Education begins at age of six.
As a rule, children in these schools learn the same things as everyone else, but after school they have to spend hours practicing in the gym under watchful supervision of strict coaches. Western journalists have repeatedly drawn attention to the dire conditions of training that are too much for any European adult. However, it would be wrong to portray the Chinese children in such institutions as subjected to violence. Training in sports schools is voluntary, but many parents are willing to pay a hefty sum for the sake of giving their child a chance to break into the Olympic Games.
As a history of sport in China notes:. In the s, workers, peasants, students, intellectuals were widely mobilised to take part in sport and physical exercises through their workplaces, agricultural communes or schools. In cities, exercises were arranged for workers at their break times in the morning or after work. Varieties of amateur competitive games were also organised among staff in public holidays.
In the rural areas, peasants were also organised to participate in some sports activities after finishing working. The failure of Chinese athletes in the Olympic Games in , however, led the Chinese Government to change its emphasis on overall sport participation from the s. While this strategy further improved outcomes for elite athletes, it was to the detriment of mass participation, as only minimal government funding was allocated to grassroots sports. Without governmental support and organisation, sports participation at the grassroots dropped very quickly.
Many amateur sports teams were dismissed; morning exercises were cancelled; and individuals rarely took part in physical exercises. As the result of the development of a market economy and the urbanisation of China during the s many changes occurred in Chinese society; these included the re-emergence of concerns about promoting healthy lifestyles.
Hence, from the late s China began to allocate more funding to grassroots sport. The program aimed to improve the health and physical condition of the population by encouraging all Chinese people to engage in at least one sport actively every day, to learn at least two ways of keeping fit and to have a health examination every year. To assist in funding the NFP the Chinese Government accessed proceeds from a sports lottery, which was established in Apart from the sports lottery fund, sports authorities at local levels were required to increase expenditure on mass sport.
Companies, government-financed institutions, public organisations and individuals were also encouraged to give financial support to sports and fitness activities. The government also invested billions of dollars in installing outdoor fitness centres throughout the country, all furnished with fitness equipment and facilities. HPSNZ funding support has been targeted primarily towards six Olympic disciplines—athletics, cycling, rowing, swimming, triathlon and yachting, as well as the sports of rugby, cricket and netball.
In addition, funding support may be provided to projects submitted by other sports as the result of evaluation made by HPSNZ of the ability of those projects to deliver either creditable Olympic Games performances by athletes or medal winning world championship, Commonwealth Games or Paralympic performances. In terms of grassroots sport, Sport NZ uses what it calls an investment approach to providing funding. It invests in organisations that are best placed in the national, regional and local sport and recreation communities to help achieve its aims.
Its key partnerships are with national sport organisations, national recreation organisations, regional sports trusts and local authorities. Through these bodies Sport NZ not only invests funding, but also provides expertise that will improve the quality of services delivered to their members and participants. Current Sport New Zealand priorities include development of community sport and recreation hubs and initiatives targeting older adult participation under an Active Communities program. Sport in New Zealand benefits greatly from funding received from a national lottery.
This was established by the New Zealand Government in following recommendations in the report Sport on the Move which identified lotteries as a source of revenue which could benefit sport, recreation, arts, and community projects. There is strong support for the community-benefit lottery model. Profits from the lottery are distributed by the New Zealand Lottery Grants Board directly to charities and community organisations.
As has been pointed out in this and various other papers on Australian sport, federal government involvement in developing sports policy and funding sport and physical activity at the elite and grassroots level is relatively recent. The Whitlam Government was the first to categorise sport as a legitimate federal policy area. Its approach to funding sport was based on the idea that mass participation in sport would benefit the nation. All governments since Whitlam have concurred—participation in sport and physical activity help to make healthier Australians.
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Hence, all governments since Whitlam have developed programs to encourage participation; some to a lesser extent than others and some with an added emphasis in other areas of policy such as developing community infrastructure. Governments since Fraser have continued and increased that involvement. Entering the sports policy area has brought dilemmas in terms of balance—what to fund, who to fund and how to fund to achieve the best results at elite and mass levels. What should be funded—organisations, individual athletes, community sports centres, talent development schemes. Who should be funded—organisations, athletes, communities, schools.
What is the appropriate division of funding between elite and grassroots sport and between sport and unstructured physical activity. These questions have been ever-present and each government since Whitlam has brought its own ideological perspective in answering them.
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For example, the Fraser Government approached sports funding from a minimalist perspective, while the Hawke Government was more expansive and entrepreneurial. Ideological perspectives aside, in making who, what and how decisions in relation to sports portfolio funding, governments have increasingly been confronted with dealing with underlying interconnections between sport and recreation and healthy living and the increasing cost of financing elite athlete development and preventive health. Despite any rhetoric to the contrary, it appears that the benefits of funding elite sport—potential success in international sporting arenas and concomitant increases in national pride— have been more influential in shaping who, what and how decisions.
Therefore, despite rhetoric which at times has contradicted reality, funding allocated to elite sport has exceeded that provided to grassroots sport. In effect, the balance has always tipped in favour of support for elite performance. It is usually only when elite performances at prestige events such as the Olympics fail to match expectations that this division of funding is openly questioned. But it is difficult to imagine that this latest innovation will undermine what appears now to be established as the fundamental formula for allocating funding to sport and recreation in Australia.
Essentially that formula is: governments provide funding to certain elite sports and the resulting success of athletes in those sports inspires the population to compete and excel. While the rhetoric of fun, enjoyment and simple participation, whatever the level, accompanying mass programs such as Active Australia, belies the formula, the funding equation appears to confirm it.
Source: Annual reports of Government departments cited and biographical information for Ministers. From includes funding for disabled d. Includes assistance payments for approved international sport facilities program. Source: Australian Government budget papers —73 to —84, Departments of Tourism and Recreation, Environment, Housing and Community, Home Affairs and Environment associated budget papers and annual reports for the years cited and Australian Institute of Sport annual reports. The Australian Institute of sport was opened in On 13 September it was announced that an Australian Sports Commission would be established.
Legislation was introduced into the Federal Parliament in and proclaimed July Independent sources of income: contributions from state and territory governments to assist in maintaining facilities located outside the AIS campus, sponsorship, interest from investments and deposits, revenue from public use of facilities, revenue from the AIS shop, proceeds from the sale of assets, revenue from residency facilities and miscellaneous revenues. No differentiation between appropriation for outcomes provided.
From —02 funding was provided under two outcomes: Outcome 1— An effective national sports system that offers improved participation in quality sports and Outcome 2—excellence in sports performance by Australians. Budget estimates for —13, annual report not yet released; does not include possible income from GST.
National Sporting Organisations.
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Disability National Sporting Organisations. Incudes funding to Australian Paralympic Committee. Confirmation of funding for Sydney Paralympics as announced in —96 Additional Estimates b. Funding to assist with the staging of the Sydney Games. The measures were in four broad categories—security, promoting Australia, other Games related activities and assisting the Sydney Organising committee for the Olympic Games.
As such, not funding directly linked with recreational, grassroots or elite programs, but with associated promotion and administration. This funding, which was to be used for the upgrade of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, was rejected by the Bracks State Government as it was unprepared to accept federal government conditions that required workers on the project to abide by federal industrial conditions.
Including funding for —05 f. Funding provided in to contribute to sporting and recreational organisations and facilities to give effect to election commitments.
Developing a Purpose
Conditional on NSW Government matching contribution. Funding is ongoing from this year. There were 91 projects to be funded under this measure.